aLIFE AND WORKS OF SAMUEL HAHNEMANN
DR. SUMIT GOEL M.D. (Hom)
1755 - 1779: HAHNEMANN'S BIRTH; EARLY LIFE
There was situated in Upper Saxony, a town called Meissen, whose inhabitants were mainly expert artists, chemists and painters. Upon the outskirts of the village, stood a long, plain building of three stories in height and was known as the Eck-haus. This house was bought on 6th of April 1753 by Christian Gottfried Hahnemann for the sum of 437 thalers. He was a painter on porcelain. The Eck-haus stood at the junction of two streets, the Fleischstege and the Newmarket. On the ground floor, in a corner room whose two large-shuttered windows looked out on the Market place, there was born on the 10th [11th ?] of April 1755, to the wife of the painter, a son. The baptismal register of Meissen contains the following record: "Christian Friedrich Samuel Hahnemann, born on the morning of the 11th of April of 1755; baptized the thirteenth day of April of the same year, by M. Junghanns. Father, Christian Gottfried Hahnemann, painter. Mother, Johanna Christiana, born Speiss."
Hahnemann's father was a designer in a porcelain manufactory, but had sound ideas of what may be considered good and worthy and this he implanted on Samuel's mind and taught him to read and write.
NEVER BE A PASSIVE LISTENER OR LEARNER.
TO LIVE AND TO ACT WITHOUT PRETENCE OR SHOW was his most noteworthy precept. This gave direction to his moral training.
Hahnemann spent several years in the public school of Meissen; then at age of sixteen at a private school; and four years later to attend the University of Leipzig.
At school, his teacher, Master Muller loved him as his own child and allowed him liberty in the way of study that influenced his subsequent studies. His father did not wish him to study and repeatedly took him away from the school for a year, so that he could pursue some business more suited to his income; but his teachers prevented this by not accepting fees.
The story of the early days of Hahnemann forms a key to his future. When Hahnemann was five years of age, his father had a habit of giving his son "thinking lessons" 'If that boy is permitted to grow up, I will give him lessons in thinking'. It was an earnest desire of knowledge that the village teachers were desirous of imparting to him knowledge without payment. During the days of his boyhood, Hahnemann was in the habit of taking frequent visits over the hills and during this time, he formed a herbarium of the plants. His studies at Meissen included Latin, Greek, Hebrew, and history, physics and botany. His favorite study was medical science.
When he left the princely school of Afra he presented a thesis written in Latin “Wonderful Construction of the Human Hand".
LIFE AT LEIPZIG AND VIENNA MEDICAL GRADUATION
On Easter, 1775, Hahnemann was allowed to go to Leipzig, with twenty thallers for support. By giving instruction in German and French to a rich young Greek as well as by translating English books, Hahnemann supported himself for the time.
During his stay in Leipzig, he attended lectures during the day and devoting the nights to translations. He was saving his money and preparing to go at the end of two years to Vienna. His fondness for practising medicine led him to Vienna, as there was no medical school at Leipzig.
In the spring of 1777, he departed for Vienna. In Vienna, at the hospital conducted by the Brothers of Charity, Hahnemann received instructions under the guidance of Von Quarin. At Vienna, he did no translating, but devoted himself entirely to acquiring the principles of medicine.
To make ends meet, Von Quarin came to Hahnemann's aid and secured for him the position of family physician and librarian at Hermanstadt. At the library, he gained knowledge of numismatics, ancient literature and of occult sciences. He also learnt several languages and was a master of Greek, Latin, English, Italian, Hebrew, Syriac, Arabic, Spanish, German and Chaldiac. He remained here for one year and nine months.
In the spring of 1779, he departed for the University of Erlangen. He defended his thesis "A Consideration of the Etiology and Therapeutics of Spasmodic Affections" successfully on 10 August 1779 and received his degree of Doctor of Medicine.
In the spring of 1781, he went to Dessau. Here, he became a regular visitor at the laboratory of apothecary Haseler where he perfected himself in practical pharmacy and chemistry. And here he met his future wife. Hahnemann, at the age of twenty-eight, was married to Miss Johanna Henrietta Leopoldina Kuchler, aged nineteen years on 1st of December 1782.
Hahnemann settled in Gommern and commenced practice. At the end of 1783, the eldest child, Henrietta was born.
While living at Gommern he also published some medical essays and several translations from English and Latin. He also published an original book on the treatment of scrofulous sores, published at Leipzig in 1784. This was the first original medical work.
DISSATISFACTION WITH MODE OF PRACTICE
Hahnemann remained at Gommern for two years and nine months. He was greatly dissatisfied with the vague and unsatisfactory medical knowledge of the day. His feelings on the subject can be understood from a letter written to Hufeland published in Lesser Writings under the title 'Letter to a Physician of High Standing on the Great Necessity of a Regeneration in Medicine'. There was a time when his beloved children were threatened by serious diseases and his problems doubled when he saw that he couldn't provide them enough relief.
GOMMERN LIFE AT DRESDEN LITERARY WORK
Hahnemann at this time was prescribing 'specifics'. One school would prescribe for a given disease a drug that another would repudiate. It was known that a certain drug in a certain case would produce a certain effect. But the combination of drugs prevented this property from being properly ascertained. His dissatisfaction increased. He looked to the medical knowledge for a reliable method of curing his patients, but was met with disappointment.
Hahnemann was a well-posted physician, skilled both in theory and practice. He was also a Surgeon. He was a prominent Physician of the time, yet he had very little confidence in the prevailing methods. Hahnemann was a conscientious man and remembered the teachings of his good father never to accept anything in science until it had been proven to be true by investigation.
Consequently, he resigned his position at Gommern in the autumn of 1784. He then shifted to Dresden and remained till 1789. He did not practice medicine, but devoted himself to his translations from the French, English and Italian. He also pursued the study of his favorite chemistry.
His son Frederick was born in Dresden in 1786 and his second daughter Wilhelmina.
In 1787, he translated Demachy's 'Art of Manufacturing Vinegar' from French and another translation 'Detection of the Purity and Adulteration of Drugs'. He introduced many new discoveries and suggestions for the detection of adulteration and determination of limits of the activity of substances and their solubility. Here he gave his celebrated 'Wirtemberg Wine Test' that is now used in the laboratory of a chemist as a test for metals.
In 1789, he also translated a romantic history 'History of the Lives of Abelard and Heloise'.
LIFE AT DRESDEN ORIGINAL WRITINGS CHEMICAL DISCOVERIES SOLUBLE MERCURY DEPARTURE FOR LEIPZIG
Hahnemann, during his stay at Dresden, in 1786, published "Poisoning by Arsenic Its Treatment and Judicial Investigation". By means of Hahnemann's book, new and better modes of analyzing Arsenic were introduced into medical jurisprudence. It received praise from the leading scientists of the day.
At this time, he was greatly devoted to chemistry and devoted during the years 1787 1789:'Crell's Annals of Chemistry'; 'On the Difficulty of Preparing Soda from Potash and Kitchen Salt'; 'On the Influence of Certain Gases in the Fermentation of Wine', etc.
"Exact Mode of Preparing the Soluble Mercury" in 1789 was another Masterpiece at that time. Chemists had for a long time been searching for a preparation of Mercury less corrosive than the sublimate, muriate or sulphate, then in use. Hahnemann, by the use of nitric acid and iron, at last obtained the desired result. This preparation of Mercurius solubilis was greatly praised by chemists and physicians.
"Instructions Concerning Venereal Diseases, Together with a New Mercurial Preparation" gives instructions concerning the use of Mercury and treats of its effects and was published in 1789.
But the insatiable thirst for extended knowledge still impelled Hahnemann and in the latter part of September 1789, he moved to Leipzig.
Only ten years before he had received his degree as physician, and during that time had become so dissatisfied with medical methods that he preferred to devote all his time to literary life, continuing in the meantime his chemical labors and investigations. In this time he had discovered very many valuable facts in chemistry, had translated several scientific books in to German, and had given to the world a number of essays on important subjects. It is interesting in this connection to note the effect of the life during these ten years upon Hahnemann's future.
1789 - 1799: Cinchona Trial; First Essay; Belladonna and Scarlet Fever
CULLEN'S MATERIA MEDICA EXPERIMENT WITH PERUVIAN BARK
Back in Leipzig, Hahnemann resumed his translations.
Dr. Cullen was an authority on Materia Medica. In Cullen's Materia Medica was established the first milestone on the road of development of the new method of treatment. When Hahnemann commenced upon this translation, he did not have any particular medical theories, but only a growing disgust for the medical fallacies of the day. The first edition of Cullen's work appeared in 1773, the second followed in two volumes: in the year 1789, under the title "Treatise of the Materia Medica". In the second volume Cullen devoted twenty pages to Cinchona bark (Cortex Peruvianus). Regarding the question of medicinal effect of Peruvian bark, Cullen defended the old opinion of the efficacy of this remedy through its "tonic effect on the stomach".
Cullen remarked "I have endeavoured to explain, in my first outlines of practical medical science, that the bark in this instance acts through its tonic effect on the stomach, and I have found nothing in any writings which could make me doubt the truth of my statements."
Hahnemann became indignant over the affected, theoretical explanations of the antipyretic power of cinchona bark that Cullen was asserting. Hahnemann attacked this opinion vigorously in his notes "By combining the strongest bitters and the strongest astringents we can obtain a compound which, in small doses, possesses much more of both these properties than the bark, and yet in all eternity no fever specific can be made from such a compound. The author should have accounted for this. This undiscovered principle of the effect of the bark is probably not easy to find."
The researches of Cullen induced Hahnemann to make experiments upon himself with this remedy. Hahnemann therefore resolved to ascertain, by the natural method of experience, wherein lay the power of cinchona bark to allay intermittent fever."Let us consider the following: Substances which produce some kind of fever (very strong coffee, pepper, arnica, ignatia bean, arsenic) counteract these types of intermittent fever. I took for several days, as an experiment, four drachms of good Cinchona twice daily. 'My feet and finger tips, etc at first became cold; I became languid and drowsy; then my heart began to palpate, my pulse became hard and quick; an intolerable anxiety and trembling (but without a rigor), prostration in all the limbs, then pulsation in the head, redness of the cheeks, thirst; briefly, all the symptoms usually associated with intermittent fever appeared in succession, yet without the actual rigor. To sum up: all those symptoms which to me are typical of intermittent fever, as the stupefaction of the senses, a kind of rigidity of all joints, but above all the numb, disagreeable sensation which seems to have its seat in the periosteum over all the bones of the body - all made their appearance. This paroxysm lasted from two to three hours every time, and recurred when I repeated the dose, not otherwise. I discontinued the medicine and I was once more in good health'."
Hahnemann remarked, in opposition to Cullen "If the author had detected that the bark had the power of producing artificial, antagonistic fever . . . certainly he would not have held so firmly to his mode of explanation. Peruvian bark, which is used as a remedy for intermittent fever, acts because it can produce symptoms similar to those of intermittent fever in healthy people."
The "Cinchona experiment" brought out not only the exact physiological effects of the bark; it had shown him that those effects were apparently the same as the symptoms of the disease for which it was used (ague).
Does the bark produce the same symptoms as it removes?
Does it alike produce and cure ague?
Is the "Specific" curing power of drugs founded on such a principle?
Do they all uniformly excite a counterfeit disease to that which they remedy?
Drug after drug, specific after specific was tested by Hahnemann on himself and on his family and friends, all with one result each remedy of recognized specific power excited a spurious disease resembling that for which it was considered specific.
During the year 1791, Hahnemann received honors from two important societies. He was elected a member of the Oekonomische Gesellschaft of Leipzig and also Fellow of the Academy of Sciences of Mayence.
Hahnemann was not practicing medicine. His translations gave him but a meager support. He had a growing family and sometime, in the year 1791, poverty compelled him to move from Leipzig to the little village of Stotteritz.
FURTHER EXPERIMENTS INSANITY OF KLOCKENBRING ASYLUM AT GEORGENTHAL GENTLE METHODS WITH THE INSANE
It is to be remembered that during the two years following the translation of Cullen, Hahnemann continued to experiment upon himself and on his family and certain of his friends with different substances. But he had not as yet tested the truth of his new principle on the sick. The insanity of Klockenbring gave him this opportunity. In 1792, he went to Georgenthal to take charge of an asylum for the insane and to treat Herr Klockenbring. It was most likely that the asylum was not opened until the insanity of Klockenbring made it a necessity and it also seems possible that he was the only patient treated there.
An article was published by Hahnemann describing a model asylum for the treatment by gentle methods of the insane. The wife of Klockenbring saw this article and Hahnemann was referred. Hahnemann carefully watched him for two weeks before giving him any medicine. at that time, furious maniacs were strapped down on a horizontal board that was quickly turned on an axis to a vertical position or put in a rotating chair. Hahnemann used only the mildest of methods in his treatment of the insane. Klockenbring, as the result of his treatment, returned to Hahnemann cured in March 1793.
Hahnemann left Georgenthal in May 1793 and went to Molschleben, a small village near Gotha. Here he again devoted himself to literary pursuits. He continued work on the second part of "Friend to Health" and composed the first part of "Pharmaceutical Lexicon". Here he mentioned the rules for the sale of poisons, minute directions for the care and preparation of drugs, gave botanical description of remedies, their time of flowering and rules for their collection.
Hahnemann, in 1795, moved to Konigslutter, where he remained until 1799.
FIRST ESSAY ON THE CURATIVE POWER OF DRUGS HUFELAND'S JOURNAL
It was during his residence at Konigslutter in 1796, that Hahnemann first communicated to the world his new discovery in medicine. In the medical journal Journal der practischen Arzneykunde und Wundarzneykunst volume two, parts three and four Hahnemann published the article titled: "Essay on a New Principle for Ascertaining the Curative Powers of Drugs".
In this he reviews the condition of medicine at that time; argues that chemistry is not the proper exponent of the curative action of drugs; that the experimentation on animals with poisons is of little use since many plants deadly to man are innocuous to animals; that the true method of experimentation with drugs is by testing them on the healthy body; says that the so-called specifics in common use are but the result of empirical practice; that the pure action of each drug should be obtained on the human body by itself.
Every powerful medicinal substance produces in the human body a kind of peculiar disease; the more powerful the medicine, the more peculiar, marked and violent the disease. We should imitate nature that sometimes cures a chronic disease by superadding another, and employ in the (especially chronic) disease we wish to cure that medicine which is capable to produce another very similar artificial disease, and the former will be cured; similia similibus.
Hahnemann very carefully argued the question of the new law. He adduces many results of poisonings of drugs, gives his experience in the uses of medicines prescribed according to the law of similars and records the symptoms that certain medicines produced on himself and others.
His next article was "Are the Obstacles to Certainty and Simplicity in Practical Medicine Insurmountable?" In it he argues in favor of simple, careful methods.
At this time Hahnemann was habitually depending on the single remedy. He also prescribed on the law of similars. He was in the habit of preparing and dispensing his own medicines independent of the apothecaries.
EPIDEMIC OF SCARLATINA DEPARTURE FROM KONIGSLUTTER BELLADONNA IN SCARLATINA
During the summer of 1799, an epidemic of scarlatina occurred, during which Hahnemann discovered the great value of Belladonna as a prophylactic against this serious disease. Hahnemann was very successful both in its prevention and treatment, but at that time, he did not reveal the name of the remedy he used. The physicians of Konigslutter became jealous and incited the apothecaries against Hahnemann. This brought an action at law against Hahnemann for dispensing his own medicines.
This rendered his further stay in Konigslutter impossible and he left in the autumn of 1799.
In 1801, Hahnemann published the secret of the discovery of the prophylactic properties of Belladonna in scarlet fever in a small pamphlet printed at Gotha "Cure and Prevention of Scarlet Fever". Hahnemann writes 'I reasoned thus, a remedy that is capable of quickly checking a disease in its onset, must be its best preventive. The following occurrence strengthened me in the correctness of this conclusion. Some weeks previously three children of a family lay ill of a very bad scarlet fever; the eldest daughter alone, who, upto that period, had been taking Belladonna internally for an external affection, to my great astonishment did not catch this fever although during the prevalence of other epidemics she had always been the first one to take them '
He also gave directions for preparing the remedy and prescribed the quantity to be used. But Hahnemann was ridiculed for his minute doses of Belladonna. He then published another essay Small Doses of Medicine in General and of Belladonna in Particular". In this he argued on the divisibility of medicine and its increase in power by sub-division and supported his doses of Belladonna as previously given.
1799 - 1811: The Wander Years; The Organon
Hahnemann remained at Hamburg until about 1802 after which he was driven from one place to another. He spent about two years at Dessau and then settled at Torgau in 1805. He remained at Torgau until 1811, when he went to Leipzig.
Hahnemann wrote the following works during this period.
Coffee and its Effects, 1803
Aesculapius in the Balance, 1805[a forerunner of Organon]
Medicine of Experience, 1805 [a forerunner of Organon]
Fragmenta de viribus medicamentorum positivis sive in sano corpore humano observatis, 1805
FIRST COLLECTION OF PROVINGS THE LAST TRANSLATION MEDICINE OF EXPERIENCE THE ORGANON ATTACKS UPON ITS TEACHINGS
In 1805, Hahnemann published a very important book in two parts, written in Latin 'Fragmenta de viribus medicamentorum positivis sive in sano corpore humano observatis' Part I contained the symptoms arranged carefully. Part II was the Index or Repertory. He gave the symptoms produced by drugs on the healthy and at the end of each remedy gave the effects recorded by previous observers in cases of poisoning. It is the first collection ever made of provings of medicines upon the healthy body.
In 1806, Hahnemann translated the Materia Medica of Albret von Haller from Latin. This was the last book he translated.
The same year he published at Berlin a pamphlet titled "The Medicine of Experience" which was a forerunner of The Organon.
It was during his residence at Torgau that Hahnemann gave to the world his great book "Organon der Rationellen Heilkunde" or "Organon of Rational Healing". It was published in Dresden by Arnold in 1810. It was nine years before the first edition was sold. This is considered the most important of all Hahnemann's books, as in its pages he has fully explained his law of cure. It contains a complete and exhaustive exposition of Hahnemann's discoveries, experiments and opinions, concerning the healing of the sick.The title page of the first edition bears the following motto from the poet Gellert:
"The truth we mortals need
Us blest to make and keep,
The All-wise slightly covered o'er,
But did not bury deep."
This motto is changed in the other editions to the words 'Aude Sapere' and the title became 'Organon der Heilkunst'.
The book consists of two parts: the introduction and the Organon proper. The introduction is first devoted to an analysis of the imperfect and erroneous method, distinguishing the old school of medicine. The second part of the introduction is filled with examples from medical writings of cures unwittingly made by physicians in accordance with the law of similars. The Organon proper is divided into paragraphs, each one of which contains one or more aphorisms in regard to the law of homoeopathy and the way in which it is to be practiced.
The five editions of Organon that were published in Hahnemann's lifetime differ somewhat from each other the first edition is not as full as the fifth, but the teaching is the same that the duty of the physician is to cure the sick as easily and as speedily as possible.
The publication of this was the signal for the commencement of a violent warfare against Hahnemann. He was attacked in medical journals of the day, books and pamphlets were fulminated against him and his strange doctrines. He was called a charlatan, a quack, an ignoramus. His minute doses were declared to be impossible. Especially bitter in attack was one Dr. Hecker of Berlin. His reviews were so virulent that even Hahnemann's opponents condemned them. The books and pamphlets written against homoeopathy may be numbered by hundreds.
But a fitting answer was given to the jealous horde in the year 1811 by the publication of the first volume of "Materia Medica Pura". And during this period he also made many new converts to his mild and successful system of healing.
1811 - 1821: The Life of Conflict in Leipzig
REMOVAL TO LEIPZIG WISH TO ESTABLISH A SCHOOL OF HOMOEOPATHY DISSERTATION OF HELLEBORE
In the early part of 1811, Hahnemann moved to Leipzig to engage more actively in the propagation of his new system by means of didactic lectures.
Hahnemann had left Leipzig at the age of twenty-two. Vienna, Hermanstadt, Erlangen, Dessau, Gommern, Dresden, the momentous discovery at Leipzig, Georgenthal, the wander-years afterwards and Torgau with its literary results, until now, with a well-known name in all Germany, with a new and superior system of medicine to his credit, a man of fifty-six years, he once more turned towards Leipzig.
Trial, sorrow, privation, malevolence, falsehood, all had followed him like shadows yet he went patiently in the path he had determined to follow. Hahnemann turned to the students and the younger doctors who were not so firmly fixed in prejudice. He soon collected from the students, congregated at Leipzig, a select coterie, to whom he commenced to teach his doctrines.
His first desire had been to establish a college with a homoeopathic hospital attached, but this he could not do. He, hence, resolved to deliver lectures upon his principles.When Hahnemann asked for the privilege of delivering lectures at the University, he was first asked to present a dissertation. This would enable him to become a Member of the Faculty and deliver lectures. On the 26th of June, 1812, Hahnemann presented a thesis in Latin "A Medical Historical Dissertation on the Helleborism of the Ancients". No one attacked this wonder of philosophical research. All his hearers were amazed. The Dean of the Faculty publicly tendered his congratulations.
HAHNEMANN'S LECTURES PROVING OF REMEDIES
Hahnemann announced his first course of lectures on the theory and principles of homoeopathy. He gave two lectures weekly, on Wednesday and Saturday afternoons, from 2 to 3 o'clock. These lectures were continued semi-annually during his entire stay at Leipzig, from 1812 to 1821. Hahnemann's lectures were attended both by students and physicians, old and young as well as non-medical people.
Hahnemann was also working on 'Materia Medica Pura'. The first volume was published in Dresden by Arnold in 1811; the second and third in 1816-1817; the fourth in 1818; fifth in 1819 and the sixth in 1821. The Materia Medica Pura consists of a record of the symptoms obtained from different medical substances proven upon the healthy body by Hahnemann and his disciples. Under each remedy is first an introduction, giving its method of preparation and best limit of attenuation, with general remarks on its action on the system; then follow the symptoms, classified according to the parts of the body.
So, Hahnemann, with his coterie of earnest students, quietly continued to experiment with medicines. Hahnemann's Provers' Union consisted of Hartmann, Stapf, Gross, Hornburg, Franz, Wislicenus, Teurhorn, Herrmann, Ruckert and Langhammer.
The year of 1813 was one of triumph to Hahnemann. The contagious typhus fever prevailed throughout Germany. Hahnemann attended cases of this terrible disease with a success that silenced his critics and proved the superiority of the new method. Out of the great number treated by Hahnemann, he lost two an old man and another who died from neglect in his diet.
MODE OF LIFE AT HIS HOUSE
At this period of his busy life Hahnemann did not leave his house to visit patients. His time was entirely devoted to his lectures, his studies and his consultations at home. He however took a daily walk with his wife and children. Hahnemann at this time was in his sixty-second year.
The long pipe was seldom out of his hand and he was addicted to smoking. The whole of his domestic economy was as simple as his food and dress. Instead of a writing desk he used nothing but a large plain table. Hahnemann's four grown-up daughters assisted their father in the preparation of his medicines and gladly took part in the provings.
After the day had been spent in labor, Hahnemann was in the habit of recruiting himself from eight to ten o'clock by conversation with his circle of friends. The family of Hahnemann presented a pattern of the old German system of training children. The children displayed not only obedience, but also the heartiest love towards their parents.
PERSECUTION PRINCE SCHWARTZENBERG
The year 1819 proved to be one of great persecution to Hahnemann. On December 16, 1819, the apothecaries of Leipzig presented to the city council a memorial in which they complained of their rights being enroached upon by Hahnemann dispensing his own medicines. They still reserved the right to proceed at any time in the future against his students who were also dispensing their own medicines. On the 9th of February 1820, Hahnemann appeared before the Court to answer the charge and responded in an essay "Representation to a Person High in Authority". But he was notified that he would be penalized for dispensing his own medicines. At that time, one of the heroes of the German war of liberation, the Austrian Field Marshal, Prince Schwartzenberg became affected with an apoplectic palsy of the right side.
Hahnemann undertook the case. To the astonishment of all, the patient felt himself better from day to day; but the powers of life had been too much weakened to permit of his recovery
1821 - 1835: The Master Years; The Quiet Life at Coethen
HAHNEMANN'S WISH FOR PEACE - INVITATION TO COETHEN
Hahnemann was now sixty-six years of age and had been practicing medicine for forty-two years. The report of his wonderful cures attracted many from other countries to Leipzig and all he wished was to be allowed to dispense the simple medicines that he himself made and to teach his benign methods. It was all in vain. The apothecaries were against him and he had to leave the old time home where he had been a student, where he had lived in later years and where he had taught for ten busy years the principles of the law of homoeopathy.
In the spring of 1821, his Highness, the Grand Duke Frederick of Anhalt-Coethen extended to Hahnemann an invitation to accept the post of private physician to himself, with free privileges of practice according to the feelings of his heart. Hahnemann accepted this offer and went to Coethen.
ACT GRANTING PERMISSION TO PRACTICE HOMOEOPATHY IN COETHEN
Hahnemann lived a quiet and studious life at Coethen. After Hahnemann had been for six months quietly and happily living in Coethen, the petition to the Leipzig authorities in regard to the self dispensing of medicines was answered favorably. On November 30, 1821, a royal decree was promulgated, granting to the homoeopathic physician, under certain conditions, the right to dispense. This was a formal recognition of the new method.
Hahnemann was created Hofrath on May 13, 1822. The title Hofrath signifies Councillor to the Court - an honorary title given by princes to persons whom they wish to especially distinguish.
LITERARY WORK - EDITIONS OF THE ORGANON - FOUNDING OF THE ARCHIV - PREFACES TO THE MATERIA MEDICA PURA
Hahnemann now devoted himself to literary work. While living in Coethen, he published the 3rd , 4th  and 5th  editions of the Organon and the 2nd and 3rd editions of Materia Medica Pura. Hahnemann left notes for a sixth edition of Organon at his death but could not publish it.
Hahnemann first mentions the word HOMOEOPATHY in the Organon; it is composed of two words from the Greek - omoios, similar, and pathos, disease. He also used the word Allopath to designate the members of the dominant school of medicine.
In 1821, Dr. Stapf established a journal devoted to the spread of homoeopathy, called - Archives for Homoeopathic Healing. This was the first magazine ever published in the interests of homoeopathy. The initial number of this journal was issued in September 1821. At this time, besides the immediate pupils, there were a number of recent converts to homoeopathy, like Gross, Muller, Wilhelm Lux, Trinks, etc.
From the years 1827 to 1830, Hahnemann devoted himself not only to his great work on the chronicity of disease, to watching carefully the growth of his favorite doctrines, to encouraging his followers, but also taking interest in all the new books and doings of the medical men.
PUBLIC TRIALS OF HOMOEOPATHY
Upto the year 1835, there were six public and formal trials, undertaken by order of governments, made of homoeopathic practice:
At Vienna, in 1828
At Tulzyn, Russia, in 1827
At St. Petersburg, in 1829-30
At Munich, in 1830-31
At Paris, in 1834
At Naples, in 1835
These were all made by Allopathic physicians and were not considered by members of the homoeopathic school as fairly conducted.
THEORY OF CHRONIC DISEASES
In the year 1828, Hahnemann published a most important book - Chronic Diseases, Their Nature and Homoeopathic Treatment. In 1827, one year previous, he called his two eldest and best beloved disciples, Drs. Stapf and Gross to Coethen and told them about his great discovery of the origin of chronic diseases and asked them to test in practice the action of certain remedies that he then designated by the name of antipsorics.
From the years 1816 to 1828 Hahnemann had been giving his thoughts to a new and startling doctrine regarding the origin and cure of diseases. There were certain diseases of long standing or chronic that did not respond properly to homoeopathic remedies. For a time, the small number of homoeopathic medicines known was the excuse given for this failure. The yearly addition of proved powerful remedies did not advance the treatment of chronic diseases, whereas the acute, if not fatal in character from the beginning were not only markedly relieved by the correctly employed homoeopathic remedy, but thoroughly cured.
Volume I of the Chronic Diseases is devoted to the following essays:
On the Nature of Chronic Diseases;
On Sycosis; Syphilis; Psora;
Directions are also given for the preparation of homoeopathic medicines.
The remaining three volumes are devoted to the provings of the antipsoric remedies.
The first edition was published in 1828-30 in four volumes. A second edition was issued from 1835-39 in five volumes.
The fiftieth anniversary of Hahnemann s graduation in medicine was approaching. His followers in all parts of the world determined to celebrate in a proper manner the day of honor. For several months before, his friends had been preparing this surprise. Previous to this time, there had been no very satisfactory pictures of Hahnemann. The editions of the Organon of 1819, 1824 and 1829 each contained a half length engraving, drawn by Junge and engraved by Stolzel, in which he is represented sitting with a pen in hand.
On the 10th of August, 1829, the great Fest-Jubilee was celebrated. From everywhere the friends and former pupils of the Old Master gladly assembled to do him honor. They brought him many presents. The Duke and Duchess of Anhalt-Coethen sent a gold-snuff box having the letter F inlaid in brilliants and a valuable drinking cup. It was a red-letter day in the history of homoeopathy!
After the festal friendly greeting the guests assembled in the garden of Hahnemann s house. A Society was then formed under the name - Society for the Promotion and Development of Homoeopathic Medicine . It was later called the Central Homoeopathic Union. The foundation of the Homoeopathic Society was confirmed by a diploma for every member now belonging to it or subsequently joining it.
DEATH OF HAHNEMANN'S WIFE
Hahnemann s wife died on March 31, 1830. For forty-eight years she had been his faithful companion in all his wanderings, had shared his adversities and had always taken upon her own shoulders the care of the family. She was nearly sixty-seven years of age at the time of her death. Eleven children were born to her - two sons and nine daughters. Hahnemann s good protector, the Duke Ferdinand, died in 1831.
From 1830 to 1835, the quiet little village of Coethen became the schoolhouse of homoeopathy. The most liberal of the physicians and many laymen had heard with interest of the new and mild method of healing and a great many of them journeyed to the home of the old master to sit at his feet. In fact the history of the introduction of homoeopathy into several countries commences with the visit of some physician or layman to the old sage, Hahnemann, in the vine covered arbor of the little garden at Coethen.
It must be remembered that Hahnemann who was at that time leading such a busy and honored life was nearly seventy-eight years of age. But his mind was as strong as in the days of the past. With the exception of occasional attacks of bronchial catarrh, he seemed to have enjoyed splendid health. For some years, he had been a sufferer from this catarrh that seemed to have been asthmatic and which was eventually the cause of his death. He had got relief by two olfactions of Coffea cruda X, first, and then of Calcarea; Ambra too was of use.
By this time homoeopathy had spread near and far. The year 1834 opened favorably for homoeopathy throughout the world. The new system had gained a foothold in New York, in Philadelphia and in the surrounding country. Russia had granted the right to practice in every part of the kingdom. In Naples, trials were being made with good results. Several homoeopathic societies had been formed in different countries. Homoeopathic books and journals were being translated and published.
1835 1843: Second Marriage; Life in Paris; The End
MADEMOISELLE D'HERVILLY SECOND MARRIAGE
We now reach a romantic episode in the life of this wonderful man. At the age of eighty he married a wife of thirty-five.
In the latter part of 1834, a French woman, Mademoiselle Marie Melanie d'Hervilly came to Coethen to consult Hahnemann. She esteemed and admired him and by this admiration, the train was laid to a marriage that brought an uninterrupted happiness to the last years of Hahnemann.
So, on the 28th of January 1835, they were married in Coethen.
Madame Hahnemann wished to return to Paris and Hahnemann did not seem to have made any objection to leaving his own country.
It is said that the daughters of Hahnemann were very jealous of the second wife and that they sought in every way, to cause her trouble. After Hahnemann, by will, left his second fortune to Madame Melanie, there was a complete rupture in their relationship. Hahnemann does not seem to have been unjust to his daughters, as he gave them a very large fortune before he left Germany. The only thing that can be adduced against Madame Melanie is that she buried Hahnemann almost like a pauper; that she refused to give up the manuscript books that Hahnemann had willed to his daughter and that she exacted an exorbitant price for the sale of the unpublished writings left at his death.
In the name of God.
Although I, Hofrath of the Duchy of Anhalt-Coethen, Doctor of Medicine, Christian Frederick Samuel Hahnemann, who have signed with my own hand on all pages, having the keen desire to spend the remaining days of my life in quiet and undisturbed peace in every respect, but especially with regard to my property, to avoid all disputes and misunderstandings among my family have already made my Will on September 16th, and duly deposited it with the Ducal Government and on the 17th of February of this year I divided nearly the whole of my fortune among my children and grandchildren now living; yet after careful consideration, finding that those very disposition which in some respects are contradictory and annul each other, might engender mistakes and misunderstandings, and also in consequence of my contemplated journey to Paris, from whence it is quite impossible to say when, if ever, I shall return, my views and intentions have become altered on some points; therefore, I herewith cancel and annul my first will and replace it by this present will which directs how my property shall be dealt with after my death by my children and grandchildren.
Before all I commend my immortal soul to the grace and mercy of God, in the steadfast belief that his most high and potent Guide of my destinies will allow it to participate in His heavenly glory. My mortal remains shall be left to my dearly beloved wife, who is to have the free choice of the place of interment and of the funeral arrangements, unfettered by anyone; but should one of my children or grandchildren dare to interfere with her directions, he is forthwith to be punished by losing one half of his inheritance.
To all the heirs of my entire property consisting of a little more than 60,000 thalers, besides my two houses in the Wallstrasse, in this town, with all appertaining thereto, several valuable articles of virtue, and my other furniture. I apportion in equal parts, but subject to conditions clearly explained in the following paragraphs, among all my children and grandchildren, as also any children who may arise from present marriage.
As mentioned above, on the 17th February I disposed of nearly the whole of my properly by a deed of gift to my children, giving each of them the sum of 6000 thalers, subject to certain conditions specially stated in the aforesaid document. This deed of mine does not alter it, but I declare herewith most emphatically that in order not to bind myself by it, this deed has not been submitted to my children for their approval, and therefore it is not binding on either party, but contains only my own dispositions of my property, an arrangement which I have made solely for the purpose of affording my children during my lifetime some assistance. It is, therefore, not irrevocable, but can at any time, according to my judgment, be altered or cancelled.
Should my son Frederick be incontestably found to have died before me, then his daughter is to be placed in his stead, and should she have died childless previous to my decease, then her portion, as well as that of any others who may have died without issue before my demise is to fall back into the general estate.
I leave as a special legacy to my two youngest daughters, Charlotte and Louise, for their joint use, my house, 270 Wallstrasse in this town, free of all debts and mortgages, so that they may take possession of it immediately after my death. Likewise I bequeath to my daughter Amalie, as a reward for her constant filial affection and devotion, my house 269 Wallstrasse in this town, free from all debts and mortgages, with court and garden, free from any charge, to take possession of immediately after my death, without having to pay anything to the other heirs, but in case my daughter Eleonora Wolff should be without a husband and wish to live in Coethen, she should either occupy one room on this house, or, instead of this free residence (according to Amalie's choice) she should receive twenty thalers a year for rent.
The golden snuff-box with the letter 'F' in brilliants, which the late Duke Ferdinand presented to me, I hereby bequeath to my absent son Frederick, should he be still alive, otherwise his daughter is to receive it, like the other portions of her father's inheritance. All the other valuable articles and movables belonging to me have already, for the most part, been divided among my children during my lifetime by a special deed of gift. The lists containing those articles which each of my heirs has received, or is to receive, are all signed with my name, and are marked, respectively, A, B, C, D, F, G, H, and are annexed to this will.
With regard to the house which I bequeathed to my two daughters, Charlotte and Louise; I have particularly to state, that should one of them die before me, the other one is at once to take possession of it. If both are alive at the time of my death they are at liberty to dispose of all their legacies according to their own free will.
All those articles of my property which have not been mentioned or disposed of, either in this will or in the annexed lists, belong to the general estate and are to be divided equally among my heirs; but all the other properties, which I take with me to Paris, do not belong to the general estate and will be disposed of hereafter.
The presents and dowries which some of my children have received during my lifetime are not to be brought to account.
All notes written and signed by my own hand, with my name, which may be found after my death among my papers, disposing of articles, or assigning legacies or other properties to friends of mine, are to be considered as codicils to this will and are equally binding on my heirs.
I trust that all my heirs will acknowledge in these arrangements my paternal affections, as it will greatly contribute to my comfort during the last days of my life. But should any of my family, contrary to all expectation, not be satisfied with this my last will, and begin an action at law about it, he is to lose at once one-half of his whole inheritance.
On the eve of my departure to Paris, where, far away from the country in which I have endured so much, I shall probably remain, and where I hope to find with my beloved wife that peace and happiness for which my desired marriage will be a sufficient guarantee, I declare that I have divided nearly the whole of my property among my children solely on the particular wish and desire of my wife, which is a proof of her noble disinterestedness; to her, my children owe it, that they have received nearly all my own fortune, which I have acquired with so much labor and exertion, but which I never could quietly enjoy. I have only reserved for myself the small sum of 12,000 thalers, and shall take, on the particular wish of my wife, only my linen, wearing apparel, library, medicine, and a few valuable articles, as watch and signet ring, with me to Paris.
I am now in my eighty-first year, and naturally desire at last to rest, and to give up medical practice, which has become burdensome to me.
I, therefore, disclaim all intention of augmenting my fortune and renounce all further gain, which, after having amply provided for my family, I am not in need of. Deeply impressed with gratitude to my wife for all the happiness she has conferred upon me, and by inducing me to distribute my property amongst my children, thus securing them an independent existence; for the happiness and comfort she has bestowed upon them, I now consider it my sacred duty to take care that the future peace and happiness of this most amiable wife is secure. To guard her against any unjust claim which might be made to members of my numerous family, who have not the least right to it, as the whole property of my wife is entirely separate from mine, and who would only be actuated by a culpable malice or sordid greed, to start quarrels, accusations or a law suit against her, or wish to annoy her in any other possible way, I decree herewith that after my death she is to keep without any exception, all articles which I take with me to Paris as her own property; I hand them over to her as unconditioned property, and I entirely forbid herewith that seals be put on her house when I die, or that inventories be taken, or any description be demanded, or any legal claim be made on her; in short I desire that my wife be left forever undisturbed by my family, who have no claim whatever on her, but who should rather bless her for her noble disinterestedness.
With this intention I refer once more to all that has been said to his subject in my marriage deed of January 14th, of this year, and confirm it herewith once more, and desire that articles 6 and 7 of the said deed, in which our inheritance is regulated, be most strictly observed and respected by all my children, children's children and sons in-law. I order in this respect that if there should be found one so unworthy among my children who contrary to these articles of my will should in the least way annoy my beloved wife, that his one should at once be relegated to the entailed portion, and that which has been withdrawn from him as a punishment be given to a charitable Institution. But should several, or all my heirs be guilty of disobedience and be refractory, and should jointly, contrary to my orders, molest their stepmother in any way whatever, then one and all shall be relegated to the entailed portion. In such a case I request the Ducal Government to apply these fines, according to their choice, for some charitable purpose.
Should my present wife bear me any children, then this child or children, as a matter of course, have the same claims on my property as the children of my first marriage. Lastly, I request my Government to take care that this, my present will be faithfully executed.
Given under my hand and seal.
CHRISTIAN FREDERICK SAMUEL HAHNEMANN.
Cothen, 2 June, 1835.
DEPARTURE FOR PARIS LIFE AND PRACTICE IN PARIS
Hahnemann departed for Paris in 1835 with his bride. They reached Paris in the last of June or the first week in July and at once settled in a house situated near the Garden of the Luxembourg; but he soon moved to a larger and more elegant mansion at No.1 Rue de Milan.
Madame Hahnemann at one set about obtaining for her husband the right to practice in Paris and through her influence she soon succeeded.
Hahnemann now not only saw patients at his home but made regular professional visits, a thing he had not done for years in Coethen. His disciples visited him from distant parts of the world. He did not write any more books after going to Paris; he revised and published the second edition of Chronic Diseases. He revised and prepared the manuscript for a sixth edition of the Organon that could not be published during the Master's lifetime.
It seems fitting that in the last brilliant years of the Paris life the Master should enjoy somewhat of that luxury that had before been denied. If, as Hahnemann says in his will, he came to Paris to rest and not to practice, then fate was too powerful for him; for never before had his practice been so large.
The second edition of Chronic Diseases, Vols. I and II was published in 1835; the third volume in 1837; the fourth in 1838 and the fifth in 1839.
DEATH OF HAHNEMANN; BURIAL OF HAHNEMANN
But the days of celebrations and interviews with great men, with which his life in Paris had been filled, were soon going to cease. From privation, trial, calumny, from the peace of Coethen, from the distinguished honors of Paris, we come to the end of the story of a magnificent life. For the previous ten years Hahnemann had been every spring a sufferer from the old bronchial catarrh. In April 1843, he was again taken with this disease and became at once seriously ill. He as usual prescribed for himself and when he became too weak to do this recommended the remedies that his wife and Dr. Chatran should use. Patiently he suffered the severe paroxysms of difficult breathing peculiar to his disease. This last attack set in with serious bilious diarrhoea, succeeded by an intermittent fever that exhausted him very much. The end came early in the morning, 5 a.m. of Sunday, July 2, 1843 after an illness of six weeks.
It is said that the widow of Hahnemann applied for and received permission to retain his body for twenty days beyond the usual time of interment.
The time of burial was kept a secret by Madame Hahnemann. Many of Hahnemann's friends in Paris were desirous of testifying their respect for him by attending his body to the grave, but the widow disappointed this wish. Early one morning, a common hearse drove into the courtyard of the mansion; the coffin was put into it and the hearse was speedily driven off to the Montmartre cemetery. The hearse was followed on foot by the bereaved widow; by Hahnemann's daughter, Madame Leibe and her son; and a young doctor named Lethiere. These were the only mourners. The body was consigned to an old vault, without any ceremony, religious or otherwise.
Hahnemann's daughter, Madame Leibe and her son; and a young doctor named Lethiere. These were the only mourners. The body was consigned to an old vault, without any ceremony, religious or otherwise.
Hahnemann's body was embalmed and laid in an exceedingly plain wooden coffin, lined with zinc. A monumental stone, with the inscription: 'Chretian Frederic Samuel Hahnemann', on the left side of Section 16 of Montmartre Cemetery, marks the spot where the deceased was laid in his eternal resting place.
EXHUMATION OF HAHNEMANN’S BODY – REBURIAL IN PERE LACHAISE CEMETRY
Hahnemann’s grave in Montmartre had been neglected and forgotten.
Dr. Bradford took steps in the early part of 1896 to ascertain the burial place of Hahnemann.
Grave no. 9 in the 16th section was the grave of Hahnemann’s widow. Hahnemann’s grave must therefore be the adjacent one, No. 8 in the same row. Grave no. 8 had no inscription, only C.P. 1832 – 1834. This plot was entered in the cemetery books under the name of Lethiere. But this was Hahnemann’s real resting place.
A suggestion was made of transferring Hahnemann’s remains from the grave in Montmartre to the best known and most beautiful cemetery in Paris and to erect a monument.
The grave at Montmartre was then opened.
· · Hahnemann’s body was badly decomposed due to inadequate sealing of coffin.
· · The skeleton was covered with silk bandages, linen cloth and cotton wool.
· · On one side lay the enamel eyes that had been inserted at embalming process.
· · Round the cervical vertebra was entwined a long tress of woman’s hair, and on his hand was the wedding ring, with the inscription – Samuel Hahnemann, Melanie d’Hervilly, united at Koethen, January 18th, 1835.
· · At Hahnemann’s feet lay a sealed glass bottle with a glass stopper. In this were found –
i. i. Gannal’s report of embalming
ii. ii. A gold memorial medal, showing on one side Hahnemann’s profile, and on the other side, it contained an inscription.
iii. iii. A manuscript by Melanie d’Hervilly.
INDEX OF ESSAYS AND WORKS OF HAHNEMANN
(I) TRANSLATIONS AND REVISIONS
Ø Ø NUGENT. Experiment of Hydrophobia. From the English.
Ø Ø STEDTMANN. Physiological Experiments and Observations with copper. From the English.
Ø Ø FALCONER. Experiments with mineral Wares and Warm Baths. From the English.
Ø Ø BALL. Newer Art of Healing, with annotations under the name of Spohr. From the English.
Ø Ø DEMACHY. Laboratory Chemist on the Preparation of Chemicals for Manufacture as for Art. From the French, with supplements and copper plates. (2nd edition 1801)
Ø Ø DEMACHY. Art of Distilling Liquor. From the French with additions.
Ø Ø DEMACHY. The Art of the Manufacture of Vinegar. From the French, with additions, and one supplement.
Ø Ø SANDE, Signs of the Purity and Adulteration of Drugs.
Ø Ø Translation of the Story of Abelard and Heloise. From the English.
Ø Ø RYAN, Enquiry into the Nature and Cure of Phthisis. From the English.
Ø Ø FABBRONI, The Art of Making Wine, in Accordance with Sensible Principles. From the Italian, with additions.
Ø Ø ARTH YOUNG. Annals of Agriculture. From the English.
Ø Ø CULLEN. A Treatise on Materia Medica 2 vols. From the English, with annotations.
Ø Ø GRIGG. Precautionary Measures for the Female Sex.
Ø Ø MONRO. Materia Medica. From the English, with annotations. (2nd edition 1794)
Ø Ø DE LA METHERIE. On Pure Air and Different Kinds of Air.
Ø Ø RIGBY. Chemical Observations on Sugar. From the English, with annotations.
Ø Ø ROUSSEAU, On the education of infants. Handbook for Mothers. 2nd edition. 1804.
Ø Ø TAPLIN, Equerry, or Modern Veterinary Medicine. Part I; Part II 1798.
Ø Ø New Edinburgh Dispensatory. Part 1, with annotations. Part 2, 1798.
Ø Ø Thesaurus medicaminum. From the English, with a preface by the translator and annotations by Hahnemann, under the letter Y.
Ø Ø HOME. Practical Observations on the Cure of Strictures of the Urethra by Caustics.
(II) OWN WORKS AND ESSAYS
Ø Ø Dissertatio inaugur. medic. Conspectus adfectum spasmodicorum actiologicus et therapeuticus.
Ø Ø Small Essays in Medical Observations by Krebs.
Ø Ø Directions for Curing Old Sores and Ulcers.
Ø Ø On Poisoning by Arsenic: its Treatment and Forensic Detection.
Ø Ø Prejudice against Heating with Coal, and Ways of Improving his Fuel, with two copper plates.
Ø Ø Relating to the difficulties in the preparation of Mineral Alkaline Salt by means of Potash and Kitchen Salt. Crells's Chem. Annals II.
Ø Ø The Influence of Certain Gasses in the Fermentation of Wines.
Ø Ø On the Wine Test for Iron and Lead.
Ø Ø Concerning Bile and Gall Stones.
Ø Ø An Unusually Strong Remedy for Checking Putrefaction.
Ø Ø Instruction, for surgeons on Venereal Diseases.
Ø Ø Unsuccessful Experiments with Some New Discoveries.
Ø Ø A letter to Crell concerning Sulphate of Baryta.
Ø Ø Discovery of a New Constituent in Plumbago.
Ø Ø Observations on the Astringent Properties of Plants.
Ø Ø A Method to Check Salivation and the Destructive Effects of Mercury.
Ø Ø Minor Essays on various subjects. Crell's Annals.
Ø Ø Complete Directions for the preparation of Mercurius Solubilis.
Ø Ø Insolubility of Some Metals and their Oxides Caustic Ammonia.
Ø Ø Contributions to the Wine Test.
Ø Ø On the Preparation of Glauber's Salts, according to the Method of Ballen.
Ø Ø Friend of Health, Pamphlet 1; Pamphlet 2, 1795.
Ø Ø Apotheker Lexikon (Pharmaceutical Lexicon). Part I (A-E); Part II (F-K), 1795; Part III (L-P), 1798 with 3 copper plates; Part IV (Q-Z), 1799.
Ø Ø Remarks on the Wurtemberg and Hahnemann's Wine Test.
Ø Ø Preparation of the Cassel Yellow.
Ø Ø On Hahnemann's New Wine Test, and the New Liquor probatorius fortior.
Ø Ø On Crusta Lactea (Milkcrust).
Ø Ø Description Klockenbring during His Insanity.
Ø Ø Essay on a New Principle for Ascertaining the Curative Powers of Drugs, and Some Examinations of the Previous Principles. Hufeland's Journal. Vol. II
Ø Ø Something about the Pulversation of Ignatia Beans.
Ø Ø A Case of Rapidly Cured Colicodynia.
Ø Ø Are the Obstacles to the Attainment of Simplicity and Certainty in Practical Medicine Insurmountable.
Ø Ø Antidotes to some Heroic Vegetable Substances.
Ø Ø Some Kinds of Continued and Remittent Fevers.
Ø Ø Some Periodical and Hebdomadal Diseases.
Ø Ø Cure and Prevention of Scarlet Fever.
Ø Ø Fragmentary observations on Brown's Elements of Medicine.
Ø Ø On the Power of Small Doses of Medicine in General, and of Belladonna in Particular.
Ø Ø Observations on the Three Current Methods of Treatment by the author of the Medical Treasury.
Ø Ø View of Professional Liberality at the Commencement of the 19th Century.
Ø Ø On the Effects of Coffee.
Ø Ø On a Proposed Remedy for Hydrophobia.
Ø Ø Aesculapius in the Balance.
Ø Ø Fragmenta de Viribus Medicamentorum Positivis Sive in Sano Humano Corpore Observatis.
Ø Ø Concerning Substitutes for Quinine.
Ø Ø Scarlet Fever and Purpura Miliaris, Two Different Diseases.
Ø Ø What are Poisons ? What are Medicines ?
Ø Ø Objections to Proposed Substitute for Cinchona.
Ø Ø Medicine of Experience.
Ø Ø Indications of the Homoeopathic Employment of Medicines in Ordinary Practice. Hufeland's Journal (Later reprinted prefixed to the first three editions of the Organon.)
Ø Ø On the Substitutes for Foreign Drugs.
Ø Ø On the Value of Speculative of Medicines, Especially in Connection with the Various Systems of Practice.
Ø Ø Extract from a Letter to a Physician of High Standing, on the Great Necessity of a Regeneration in medicine.
Ø Ø Observations on Scarlet fever.
Ø Ø Reply to a Question about the Prophylactic for Scarlet Fever.
Ø Ø To a Candidate for the Degree of M.D.
Ø Ø On the Prevailing Fever.
Ø Ø Signs of the Times in the Ordinary System of Medicine.
Ø Ø Organon of Rational Healing. Dresden, by Arnold, 1st edition
2nd Edition, 1819: Organon of the Art of Healing. Dresden, by Arnold.
3rd edition. 1824. Dresden, by Arnold.
4th edition, 1829. Dresden, by Arnold.
5th edition, 1833. Dresden, by Arnold.
6th edition, 1921.
Ø Ø Materia Medica Pura.
1ST EDITION 2ND EDITION
Vol I - 1811 Vol I - 1822
Vol II - 1816 Vol II - 1824
Vol III - 1817 Vol III - 1825
Vol IV - 1818 Vol IV - 1825
Vol V - 1819 Vol V - 1826
Vol VI - 1821 Vol VI - 1827
Ø Ø Dissertation on the Helleborism of the Ancients. Thesis to the Faculty at Leipsic.
Ø Ø Spirit of the Homoeopathic Doctrine of Medicine. (later completed and prefixed to the 2nd part of Materia Medica Pura)
Ø Ø Treatment of Typhus Fever at Present Prevailing.
Ø Ø Venereal Disease and its Improper Treatment.
Ø Ø Treatment of Burns.
Ø Ø On Uncharitableness to Suicides.
Ø Ø On the Preparation and Dispensing of Medicines by Homoeopathic Physicians. (Representation to a high authority.)
Ø Ø Treatment of Purpura Miliaris.
Ø Ø Information for the Truth-seeker.
Ø Ø How may Homoeopathy be Most Certainly Eradicated
Ø Ø The Chronic Diseases Their Peculiar Nature And Their Homoeopathic Cure
Vol. I, II, III - 1828
Vol. IV - 1830
Vol. I, II - 1835
Vol. III - 1837
Vol. IV - 1838
Vol. V - 1839
Translated from the second enlarged German edition of 1835 by Louis H. Tafel with annotations by Richard Hughes.
Ø Ø Allopathy, a Word of Warning to Sick Persons.
Ø Ø Appeal to Thinking Philanthropists Respecting the Mode of Propagation of Asiatic Cholera.
Ø Ø Letter about the Cure of Cholera.
Ø Ø Open Letter to His Majesty Kind Friedrich Wilhelm III (of Prussia).
Ø Ø Surest Cure and Eradication of Asiatic Cholera.
Ø Ø Cure of Cholera, with supplement.
Ø Ø Introduction to the "Repertory of the Antipsoric Remedies," and to the "Systematic Alphabetical Repertory of the Homoeopathic Remedies".
Ø Ø Dr. C. V. Boenninghausen, on Repeating Homoeopathic Remedies, Doses, Potencies, and Double Remedies.
v v JOHANNA HENRIETTA LEOPOLDINE KUCHLER, daughter of Godfried Henry Kuchler, step-daughter of the apothecary Haseler, born June 7, 1762; married at Dessau, December 1, 1782; died at Coethen, March 31, 1830. Eleven children
v v MELANIE D HERVILLY, daughter of a painter of Savoy. He afterwards became blind and destitute and Hahnemann cared for him. Adopted daughter of (the late Minister of Justice and President of the Executive Directory of the French Republic, 1799) Louis Jerome Gohier. Born in 1800; married at Coethen, January 28, 1835; died at Paris, May 27, 1878. No children.
v v HENRIETTE, born at Gommern in 1783; married Pastor Forster; lived in Dresdorf. Had children: Louis, merchant; Robert, farmer; Angeline; Adelheid
v v FRIEDRICH, born at Dresden, November 30, 1783; married in 1812; had one daughter; died about 1829
v v WILHELMINE, born at Dresden, about 1788; married Music Director Richter of Gera; died about 1818; had one son.
v v AMALIE, married Dr. Leopold Suss, by whom she had one son, Leopold Suss,who aterwards took the name Suss-Hahnemann, and was a homoeopathic physician practising in London. Amalie married for second husband, Herr Liebe; lived in Paris and London; died in Coethen, December 7, 1857.
v v CAROLINE, died unmarried.
v v FREDERIKA, married Dellbruck in Stotteritz, near Leipzig.
v v A still-born twin sister, twin to Frederika
v v ERNST, born at Konigslutter in 1798; killed by a fall from a wagon when a baby, near Mulhausen.
v v ELEONORE, married to Herr Klemmen, afterwards to Dr. Wolff.
v v CHARLOTTE, born at Leipzig; lived with her father and died at Coethen unmarried, April 13, 1863, of paralysis of the lungs. She was the last surviving unmarried daughter of Hahnemann.
v v LOUISE, born at Leipzig; married Dr. Mossdorf; after his death, she lived at Coethen with Charlotte.
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